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Часть III. Специальные области применения



от меня ждут... элементарно, ты ждешь определенного результата. Я стара­юсь сделать это. Я делаю это двадцать пять лет, Не так ли? А потом я вижу, что этого молодого парня с его новой философией, такой философией, которая отражает стремления наших дней. Они приходят сюда, и твои люди видят, что это новый гений... светловолосый мальчик... ты понимаешь? Добрый старый Джон вон там в углу... он будет там, когда я так делаю... он

будет там.

С: «Чудо-мальчик»... и мы должны использовать его.

Р.: Но ты что-то знаешь... у меня такое чувство, что основной пробле­мой... может быть скорее, чем беспокоиться об этом парне, мне следует научиться какому-то из этих новых направлений.

С: Ты слишком долго думал об этой чепухе, которая не заслуживает

того.

Р.: Вероятно так.

С: Вот так-то. Я рад, что ты это сказал, потому что я чувствовал то же самое, и, поняв, что с тобой происходит, что ты делаешь правильный вы­бор, я действительно рад за тебя.

Р.: Ну, у меня есть такие мысли, но я не говорю, что самостоятельно пришел к ним. Моей жене тоже пришлось напомнить об этом и, конечно, тебе известна причина, почему я не сделал этого раньше, потому что я чувствовал себя чертовски старым.

С: Это еще один предмет разговора, который обнаружился сейчас.

Р.: Ты можешь сказать это... ты моложе.

С: Другими словами, я не могу понять, как ты себя чувствуешь в твоем возрасте. Сколько тебе лет?

Р.: Сорок пять.

С: У тебя такое чувство, что ты перешел через мост, а? Критический

возраст для тебя?

Р.: Правильно! Это основная проблема. Но моя жена убеждает меня, что некоторые парни идут в колледж, когда им сорок четыре. Если они могут поступить так, может быть и я смогу.

С: Кажется, твоя жена сильно помогла тебе в этом.

Р.: Да, она помогла... ну, иногда она более реалистична... но у нее слиш­ком прямолинейный взгляд на вещи и она не воспринимает события так эмоционально, как я... я отмечаю. Но я не могу быть таким, как она.

С: Ты не можешь быть таким, как она? Ты должен быть собой и она должна быть собой.

Р.: Правильно!

С: Джо, ты сказал о многом, что действительно интересует меня. Ты высказал предположения о себе, которые нуждаются в обдумывании...

Сложность понимания точки зрения других людей, вероятность упорного отстаивания своих идей, вероятность, что некоторые твои идеи устарели. Я действительно рад, что ты понимаешьэто. Может быть справедливо то, что ты сказал обо мне. Иногда меня расстраивает, что люди не говорят о своих чувствах по отношению ко мне, и мне было приятно, что ты смог посидеть со мной и рассказать, что ты чувствуешь. Я буду следить за этим тоже и может быть ты поработаешь над своими, а я над своими проблемами и, как знать, может представиться новая возможность, события могут меняться.

Р.: Я надеюсь, что они изменятся... мне бы хотелось знать заблаговре­менно о чем-либо новом... и иметь возможность.

С: Ну, я могу готовить тебя к чему-то новому, что будет, и ты сможешь подумать над этим.

Р.: Это... позволь мне рассчитывать, что, по крайней мере, меня примут к сведению... это моя проблема. Тогда бы я не считал, что все упирается только в мое прошлое.

С: Поскольку ты заговорил о своем возрасте, о том, что ситуация по­ставила тебя в тупик, хочешь ли ты знать о том, что происходит, и, если тебя информируют, ты сможешь принять участие, а?

Р.: Ну, разве ты не чувствуешь, что стремишься к тому же? Разве не естественно думать об этом?

С: Я думаю, это правильно.

Р.: Чувство принадлежности, безопасность, возможность продвижения и все такое?

С: Но если ты не чувствуешь этого со мной, я очень хочу, чтобы ты сказал мне об этом.

Р.: Ну, чтобы быть честным с тобой... я не чувствовал так до нынешнего вечера... приход сюда, наш разговор привели к ощущению, будто ты мо­жешь видеть, что у меня внутри... понимать, как я думаю.

С: Ты чувствуешь, что стал ближе мне?

Р.: Ну, я чувствую себя более раскованным... более похожим на себя прежнего... о чем хочется сказать.

С: Ну, я знаю, что ты в таких случаях переменчив. Вероятно, я не гово­рил о том, как ценю тебя и хочу, чтобы ты знал, как много ты значишь для нашего отдела и как много ты помогал мне, когда мы работали над разны­ми проектами.

Р.: Спасибо.

С: Ну, Джо, рад был увидеться, но наше время заканчивается и мне пора уходить; но я действительно хочу, чтобы ты мог свободно заходить и говорить со мной в любое время обо всем, что беспокоит. Хорошо?

Р.: Большое спасибо. Я действительно признателен за это.

ЗАКЛЮЧЕНИЕ

Отношения в процессе консультирования и методики кон­сультирования являются важным инструментом управления в процессе активизации взаимных интересов работника и супер­визора. Надлежащие отношения при консультировании могут устранять коммуникационные барьеры, способствовать росту работника и помогать супервизору справляться с двумя ключе­выми проблемами-зависимостью работника и угрозой оценки его производительности. Правильное консультирование работ­ников в условиях производства и сфере управления не сильно отличается от официального консультирования и психотерапев­тических консультаций. Особую важность при супервизорском консультировании и грают такие техники отношений, как струк­турирование, молчание и отражение чувств. При тренинге сенси-тивности управленческого персонала существенным элементом помощи является осознание ими собственных чувств, а также чувств их подчиненных, поскольку это позволяет быть искрен­ними, сердечными и принимающими по отношению к сотрудни­кам, которые обращаются со своими проблемами.

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СОДЕРЖАНИЕ

От авторов................................................................................6

Предисловие...........................................................................9

ЧАСТЬ I. Основы..............................................................15

Глава 1. Профессиональное консультирование

и психотерапия................................................................17

Глава 2. Теоретические основы

терапевтической психологии.........................................44

Глава 3. Развитие личности...........................................104

Глава 4. Процесс консультирования

и психотерапии.............................................................. 142

ЧАСТЬ II. Методы..........................................................183

Глава 5. Подготовка к консультациям

и психотерапий..............................................................185

Глава 6. Сущность взаимоотношений

и личные качества психотерапевта..............................220

Глава 7. Техника выстраивания взаимоотношений.... 258 Глава 8. Специфические проблемы взаимоотношений 314

Глава 9. Методы интерпретации..................................358

Глава 10. Использование советов, информации

и тестов...........................................................................397

Глава 11. Групповая динамика, коллективные консультации и групповая психотерапия...................427





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