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The modern Kazakh literature began to form in the beginning of the XX century. And it did not happen by chance. During this period modern Kazakh language was being formed, new stylistic forms appeared. Kazakh writers began to master new genres.
One of the outstanding authors in the literature of the beginning of the XX century was Akhmet Baitursynov. He was busy with pedagogical and literary activity. His first works were the translation of Krylov’s fables; a collection of poems “Kyryk mysal” published several times was very popular among Kazakh people. He wrote some articles about the Kazakh language. The name of Abai Kunanbayev (1845-1904) is signed with golden among the Kazakhs”. It is undoubtful that Abai is also an outstanding thinker. He shares his thoughts and sympathies in the prosaic telling “Kara soz”.
The noticeable figure in the Kazakh literature was Mirzhakyp Dulatov (1885-1913). He is known as a poet and a prosaic. Dulatov is the author of the first Kazakh novel “The Unhappy Zhamal”.
The 302 brought away many representatives of the Kazakh intelligentsia. Saken Seifullin, Beyimbet Mailin were repressed; among these people was also Shakarim Kudaibergenov. The special role in the development of the Kazakh philosophical thought belongs to him. Shakarim was Abai’s nephew and was brought up by him. He traveled a lot, knew eastern languages, mastered Russian perfectly. Shakarim wrote letters to Leo Tolstoi, translated Pushkin’s works into Kazakh. After Shakarim’s death not only his philosophical and historical works but also a great number of his poems, rhymes and prose were left. Among modern writers of Kazakhstan Mukhtar Auezov (1897-1961) has a special place. His grandfather was Abai Kunanbayv’s friend. Mukhtar Auesov himself graduated from the Leningrad university in 1929. His writing activity began with the play “Yenlik-Kebek” – a legend about tragic love. During his life he wrote more than 20 plays, novels and many short stories. His best work is considered to be epic novel “Abai”. The novel had a great influence on the Kazakh literature and was translated into many languages of the world. M.Auezov was also a great translator. His translations of Tolstoi, Chekhov, Shakespeare, London enriched the Kazakh literature.