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The Republic of Kazakhstan began to pursue the certain foreign policy after acquiring independence on December 16, 1991. Since that time Kazakhstan has come out into the world arena as a subject to the international of the United Nations Organization enjoying full rights.
Kazakhstan occupies an important geopolitical position and strategic space connecting Europe and the Asian Pacific region. That is why the special matter is the relations of Kazakhstan with Russia and China. In 1992 an agreement with Russia about mutual help, friendship and cooperation in the economical, military and political spheres was signed. Some agreements and treaties with the Republic of China were also concluded.
Kazakhstan traditionally has close connexions with the nearest neighbours – Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Kirgiziya, Turkmenia. Common borders, high level of integration during the existence of the USSSR, ethnically related nations oblige to keep good relations with these states further.
Since there were nuclear weapons on the territory of Kazakhstan the world carefully watched which policy the country would pursue after the proclamation of sovereignty. Kazakhstan made the first step, i.e. closed the Semipalatinsk range, which had influenced the big territory in a negative way for 40 years. Kazakhstan ratified the Treaty of non-spreading the nuclear weapons, prohibition of nuclear tests. The country joined the Convention of prohibition of chemical weapons, the convention of prohibition of projects and accumulation of bacteriological weapons and toxins supplies.
In 1996 Kazakhstan regularly participated in the meetings of the Shanghai Five countries. This organization includes Kazakhstan, Kirgiziya, China, Russia and Tajikistan. The total territory of these five states makes up three-fifths of the territory of Eurasia, and the population – one-fourth of the world population. That is why the cooperation of the Five and common policy pursued by them have great meaning not only for the people of these countries but for the whole mankind. In 2001 Uzbekistan joined this international union and after that its members have been called the Shanghai Organization of Cooperation. During that time the important agreements with China have been made. Concerning the problem of controversial territories the countries made the agreement that 57 % of controversial land (about 100 square km) would belong to Kazakhstan and 43% - to China. Kazakhstan and Russia came to the agreement on matters concerning the usage of the Baikonur cosmodrom, oil extraction, manufacturing and transportation, adopted the Declaration of everlasting friendship and cooperation between two countries.
During ten years of sovereignty the relations with Turkey developed especially well. Many joint enterprises have been founded on the territory of Kazakhstan. Hundreds of students from Kazakhstan study at the universities of Istanbul and Ankara. The scientists of both countries take the most active part in the conferences on different levels.
The Kazakhstan diplomacy pays much attention to the development of the relations with such countries as Iran and India. The link with these countries has deep historical roots.
The great attention is devoted to the relations with the mightiest world power – the United States of America. Founding business relations with the USA had a great meaning because this state is one of the main investors of the Kazakhstan economical system. The USA also help in the spheres of culture and education. On the basis of the Bolashak program Kazakhstan students get education at the universities of the USA and Europe.
The Friendly relations with European countries have also been founded. In 1992 President N.Nazarbayev visited Germany where he met with chancellor G.Kol. In France there was a meeting with F.Mitteran. The agreement of mutual understanding and cooperation with this country was signed.
Kazakhstan has also made business contacts with Hungary, Bulgaria, Chekhia, Rumania.
The great perspectives are suggested by the relations of Kazakhstan with the countries of ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations) the countries of Northern Eastern Asia – Japan, Northern and Southern Korea and Mongolia.
Besides cooperation with other states, Kazakhstan has close connexions with international organizations. Therefore, during a little period of membership in the UNO, since 1992, Kazakhstan has manages to occupy a noticeable position in the Organization. The country actively cooperates with the UNICEF (United Nations International Children’s Emergency Found). The world assistance in the realization of the UNICEF program in Kazakhstan supplied by the Bobek children’s charity fund. The cooperation of Kazakhstan with UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is also quite successful. In particular the collaboration in the sphere of science was based on attracting UNESCO to the solution of big ecological problems of Kazakhstan – the Aral region, the Caspian Sea and the zones of the Semipalatinsk nuclear range.
The success of pursuing the policy of economical growth depends on the position of the Republic relatively to international and financial organizations. As a result in 1992 Kazakhstan entered the IMF(International Monetary Fund). Kazakhstan has a solid base for cooperation with European Bank. In 1994 the Republic of Kazakhstan entered the Asia Bank of Development. The country occupies the twentieth place in the common list of all participating countries. Nowadays there is a solid and reliable basis for collaboration of Kazakhstan with the Islamic Bank of Development.
One of the main tasks of Kazakhstan is its joining the WTO (World Trade Organization). By entering the WTO the country acquires a real chance to participate in making up decisions on important international trade matters actively. It especially concerns the matters included in the sphere of vital ones for the Republic.
The Republic of Kazakhstan builds up economical and trade ties with foreign states on the basis treaties of mutual profit with observing the principles of rights equally. The country independently solves the matters of foreign trade activity.
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