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Kazakhstan formed part of the Soviet Union for almost 70 years. The country lived that period together with the other republics; it experienced the same shocks and turns of history.
During those years there was a lot of negative.
The 1920s and 1930s were the most tragic for Kazakhstan. Collectivization and “experiment” of Goloschyokin, the chairman of local party organization, led to repressions. Exactly in the 30s there was annihilated the top of the Kazakh intelligentsia – poets, writers, musicians. Especially terrible was the starvation in 1931-1933. That time is comopared with the epoch of the Dzhungar invasion. The number of starvation victims was 1 million 750 thousand people. More than 1 million of Kazakhs left native land, about 200 thousand went abroad to China, Mongolia, Afganistan, Iran. Forcible resettlement of the whole nations continued in the USSR for almost 20 years. Its victims were Koreans, Poles, Germans of the Volga, Bulgarians, and the people of the north Caucasus and the Baltic countries.
The Great Patriotic War (1941-1945) was a difficult examination for all the people of the USSR. But it was that war which united them together, made them realize the unity and friendly support. Kazakhs also took part in the liberation of Europe from fascism. About 500 of them became the Heroes of the Soviet Union.
Cultivation of virgin lands begun at the end of the 50s had both positive and negative results in the life of Kazakhstan. Undoubtedly, virgin soil began the development of agriculture, town planning of the region, the creation of railway system, elevators, and cultural objects. But at the same time the ecology of some places suffered very much. Besides, as a result of thoughtless migration policy specific gravity of indigenous population reduced to 30%.
At the same time in the period of socialism Kazakhstan advanced in science, culture and economy. One of the absolute achievements of the Soviet regime was the development of the system of national education and the realization of universal literacy. Also the system of higher institutions began its development. There were no institutes at the territory of Kazakhstan till 1920. Science got powerful development. All this was done exactly in the soviet period of history and it is successfully developed nowadays.
By 1991 – the year of declaration of independence – Kazakhstan became a modern power having strong raw material and industrial supply, developed economy, technically well-equipped army (USSR heritage) and good scientific and technical potential.
Socialist period in the history of the country is our recent past. To give it a categoric appreciation is prematurely now. It seems that our descendants will appreciate this period more correctly.