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Ulug Ulus or the Golden Horde



After Chingis Khan’s victories many of kypchaks had to run away to the steppes of Eastern Europe. Some of them were taken prisoners or sold into slavery. Becoming warriours-slaves in Egypt or India some Kypchaks managed to reach high positions. They formed a powerful force as Mameluke Ygypt and Delhi sultanate, which became an obstacle on the way of Chingis Khan’s army. Among Turkic leaders the famous are sultan Beibars, Kalaun in Egypt, Iltutmysh and Balban in India. Kypchak Yantimur ruled China and Mongolia from 1328 to 1333.

Chingis Khan’s attacks detained the process of nation forming on the territory of Kazakhstan, but did not stop it. Before the death Chingis Khan divided his empire among his 4 sons. The eldest son – Dzhuchi got the lands of Sary Arka and further to the west, to the south till the Caspian and Aral. Northern Khorezm belonged to him, too. His possessions got the name Ulug Ulus – “Great Ulus”. Ulug Ulus was in fact the first centralized Kazakh state. Eastern historians called it the White Horde, in Russian sources it is known as the Golden Horde. The economic life on the territory began to be restored, Kazakh tribe started to unite. This was due to their related languages, common origin, material and spiritual cultures. Thus the units of Kazakh clans and tribes appeared. They got the name of zhuzes. There were 3 zhuzes on the territory of Kazakhstan: the Oldest, the Middle and the Youngest.

Ulug Ulus existed till the XIV century. It played a positive role for Kazakhstan. There appeared a centre of the country without wars. The formation of a strong state stimulated the growth of trade and city building. Ruined during the conquests cities, Otrar for example, were rebuilt. Khan Berke announced Islam a state religion. In the XIV century after a few rulers changed, Ulug Ulus was no longer a strong country. Unsuccessful foreign policy, intrigues among the rich led to the defeat of war with Timur; new civil was caused the state break-up.

As a result Ulug Ulus – the Golden Horde – stopped existing by the XV century. Several states appeared on its place. They were Kazan, Crimea, Sarai (Astrakhan) khanates. The biggest part of the former Ulug Ulus was under Abulkhair State.





Дата публикования: 2015-01-04; Прочитано: 654 | Нарушение авторского права страницы | Мы поможем в написании вашей работы!



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