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Semantically adverbials modifiers denote place, time, manner, cause, purpose, result, condition, concession, attendant circumstances, comparison, degree, exception, thus forming semantic classes, such as adverbials of place, time, etc.
1. Adverbial Modifier of Place. Identifying questions: where? where to? where? how far? where from?:
He lives far from his parents.
2. Adverbial Modifier of Time. Identifying questions: when? how often? how long?:
We owned an Alsatian dog once.
3. Adverbial Modifier of Manner. Identifying questions: how? in what way? by what means? Prepositions which may introduce them: with, without, by, by means of, with the help of, etc.:
Hooper danced badly, but with great energy.
4. Adverbial Modifier of Cause (Reason). Identifying questions: why? for what reason? Prepositions which may introduce them: because of, due to, owing to, on account of, for the reason of, thanks to, etc.:
Thanks to my parents I got a decent education.
5. Adverbial Modifier of Purpose. Identifying questions: what for? for what purpose? Prepositions which may introduce them: in order, so as ( never used before an infinitive complex), for (introduces nominal or gerundial phrases):
Jane has come to help us.
6. Adverbial Modifier of Result. It refers to an adjective or adverb accompanied by an adverb of degree too, enough, sufficiently, so… (as; too signals a negative result; enough suggests a necessary amount of quality to perform the action; sometimes modifies a noun with qualitative meaning; so… as implies a realized action:
It is toocold to go out.
7. Adverbial Modifier of Condition. Identifying questions: in what case? on what condition? Prepositions which may introduce them: but for, except for, without; conjunctions if, unless:
Without faith there can be no cure.
8. Adverbial Modifier of Concession. It shows an idea that is in contradiction with what is stated in the modified part of the sentence. Identifying questions: in spite of what? Prepositions which may introduce them: in spite of, despite, conjunctions though, if:
Despite his smile, the man was difficult to deal with.
9. Adverbial Modifier of Attendant Circumstances and Subsequent Events. It states a fact that accompanies the event presented by the modified part of the sentence or an event following the event presented.:
We walked three miles without meeting anyone.
He woke up to see that it was daylight
10. Adverbial Modifier of Comparison. Conjunctions introducing them: than, as, as if, as though, etc.:
A mountain is higher than a hill.
11. Adverbial Modifier of Degree. Identifying questions: how much? to what extent?:
The story is extremelylong.
12. Adverbial Modifier of Exception. Prepositions which may introduce them: but, except, save (formal), but for, except for, save for (formal), apart from, aside from, with the exclusion of, etc.:
These men were quite civil save during certain weeks of autumn and winter.